Power! (1966-1968)



The call for Black Power takes various forms across communities in black America. In Cleveland, Carl Stokes wins election as the first black mayor of a major American city.

The Black Panther Party, armed with law books, breakfast programs and guns, is born in Oakland. Substandard teaching practices prompt parents to gain educational control of a Brooklyn school district but then lead them to a showdown with New York City's teachers' union.

Chronology:
October 1966: Huey Newton and Bobby Seale form the Black Panther Party for Self Defense in Oakland, California. Armed with a political and educational agenda for social change, the Panthers begin by monitoring police activities in the black community.

April 1967: The first issue of the Black Panther Party newspaper is published.

May 1967: The Black Panthers travel to Sacramento, California, the state capital, to protest a bill to outlaw the display of loaded weapons in public places.

Spring 1967: New York City's board of education creates three experimental public school districts to be governed by local boards. One is Ocean Hill/Brownsville in Brooklyn.

October 1967: During a confrontation with police in Oakland, California, Huey Newton is shot in the stomach; officer John Frey is killed. Newton is arrested.

November 7, 1967: Carl Stokes narrowly defeats Republican Seth Taft to become mayor of Cleveland, Ohio.

May 8, 1968: The Ocean Hill/Brownsville board transfers thirteen teachers, five assistant principals and one principal out of the district; 350 teachers walk out in protest.

September 8, 1968: Newton is convincted of voluntary manslaughter in the death of policeman Frey (conviction reversed in May 1970).

September-November 1968: The United Federation of Teachers, New York's teachers' union, stages three successive citywide strikes.

November 17, 1968: New York City's board of education suspends the Ocean Hill/Brownsville governing board.

Key interviews:
Carl Stokes, mayor of Cleveland
Seth Taft, Cleveland Republican mayoral candidate
Geraldine Williams, Stokes campaign secretary
Huey Newton, Black Panther Party minister of defense
Bobby Seale, Black Panther Party chairman
Elaine Brown, Black Panther Party member
Richard Jensen, Oakland policeman
Fred Nauman, transferred teacher, Ocean Hill/Brownsville district
C. Herbert Oliver, president, Ocean Hill/Brownsville governing board
Rhody McCoy, unit administrator, Ocean Hill/Brownsville
Les Campbell, teacher, Ocean Hill/Brownsville
Karriema Jordan, student, Ocean Hill/Brownsville

Additional Links:

http://www.blackpanther.org/

http://www.bobbyseale.com/

http://www.blackpanther.org/newsalert.htm

http://www.bobbyseale.com/phototour/

http://foia.fbi.gov/bpanther.htm

http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/MRC/pacificapanthers.html

http://www.historychannel.com/cgi-bin/frameit.cgi?p=http%3A//www.historychannel.com/speeches/archive/speech_398.html