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Y.M.C.A / New Hope Housing
654-658 Bergen Avenue
Bergen Hill Neighborhood

National Register of Historic Places
State Register of Historic Places

YMCA Building on Bergen Avenue circa 1925
Courtesy, Jersey City Free Public Library
 
Early 20th Century postcard of YMCA Building on Bergen Avenue
Courtesy, RF Smith

Members of the Grace Van Vorst Church established the beginnings of the Jersey City branch of the Young Men's Christian Association (Y.M.C.A.) in the 1850s.  Located in rooms at the corner of Gregory and Henderson streets (now the Gregory Apartments), the "Y" strove to provide inexpensive housing in a Christian environment for young men, both immigrant and native-born, who came to the city to work in Jersey City's waterfront industries during the nation's era of industrialization. Its purpose was to follow in the mission of the first Y founded in the US in Boston, MA, in 1851, which was dedicated to the spiritual, mental and physical development of individuals, who in turn will contribute to their communities. The purpose of the Y was also to socialize and "Americanize" the immigrant workers in the values of the society.

By the 1860s its members gathered in rooms
at Franklin Hall
, which had a reading room and library containing 200 books, magazines and newspapers. Lectures and prayer meetings were also held there.  Ministers of the local churches, such as North Baptist, First Presbyterian and Dutch Reformed, were active participants. According to its publication The Journal (1867-68), Y.M.C.A. members debated moral and political issues, ranging from the enforcement of Sunday observance laws to the purchase of Alaska, Bible reading in public schools and capital punishment. One such debater was Z.K. Pangborn who founded the Jersey Journal. The "Y" also sponsored classes for young men in mechanical drawing, nature study and German, as well asevening classes for businessmen.  

After moving to several locations in the city, the "Y" settled at Montgomery and Greene streets in 1909.  Here the Pennsylvania Railroad participated in a residence program, called Bergenview Village, for its employees and those of the Railroad Express service "To help make Pennsylvania Railroad men better father, sons and employees."  In an annual report for 1909-1910, the dormitory facility was described as "A home for the man away from home, the homeless . . . to keep them from the evils of the saloon and other places of vice. To render the best service, employees must be sober." Among the other companies that sent their new workers from outside the city to live at the "Y" were Western Electric, Public Service, American Can Co., and the State Highway Department.

After a five-year fund raising campaign following World War I, plans were made to build a new structure on Bergen Avenue, where land was purchased for $35,000.  Completed in 1924, the Y.M.C.A. building in Jersey City was designed by architect John F. Jackson, who was responsible for designing "Y" buildings nationally. The Renaissance Revival structure is topped by a stone parapet with the inscription "Young Men's Christian Association." One approached the building through a stone portico with columns in front of the entrance that was eventually removed. Today, steps lead to the rectangular entrance with glass doors. The six-story building with basement of brick and stone is constructed in a reverse L-shaped design. Above the ground story of rusticated stone, the main feature of the facade is a second story with seven central bays of rectangular windows with pediment window heads, which are alternately triangular or arched, and stone grill decoration below each window. The window over the doorway is set against a background formed by arched stone. Stone quoins line the corners of the building.   

The interior of the Y.M.C.A. building was noted for its grand arched gothic ceilings and detailed tile work. Besides the 220 dormitory roo ms , there was a reading room, billiard roo ms , bowling alley, and a four-lane, 25-yard indoor swimming pool that was an elegant natatorium. An addition to the "Y" opened in 1934 for handball courts and an exercise room.

Over the decades, the Y.M.C.A. made accommodations with a variety of services to meet the interests of the community. It operated as a private, nonprofit agency and received assistance from Jersey City through its Community Development Block Grant funds. Its athletic facilities were upgraded with features such as a Nautilus Center, free-weight room, indoor running track, sauna and whirlpool. Its education program included courses in public speaking, foreign languages, American literature, dance and business courses; its religious progra ms offered Bible classes on Sunday mornings.  Residents at the "Y" paid for their housing by the week or the month and enjoyed the convenience of an on-site cafeteria and meal plan; there were special rates for students.

The Y.M.C.A. ran after-school, summer camp and mentor programs for children. It also provided space for the Hudson Repertory Dance Theater Company, the Jersey City Child Development Care Corps (Head Start), and the Hudson County Catholic Youth Organization (CYO). In 1978, the five residential floors became coed to relieve the need for reasonable housing for single young women in the city.

The "Y" almost closed after 1992, having declared bankruptcy, and it ceased to be a Y.M.C.A. in 1995.  The building is now owned by New Hope Housing, a subsidiary of The Community Builders, a nonprofit group. It renovated the housing residence, with assistance from Jersey City, into a total of 131 housing units consisting of affordable 73 efficiency apartments and 58 single-room apartments with provisions for the homeless and those at-risk. Space is available for the Jersey City Head Start program, church groups and the municipal recreation department. A new entrance separates the recreational and residence areas.  

References:

Jackson, John F. The Bergen Building of the Jersey City, N.J. YMCA (illustrated by architect). Joan D. Lovero Collection, New Jersey Room.  Jersey City Free Public Library.
"Old YMCA Begins to Move to New Life." Jersey Journal 27 August 1996.
Roberts, Jeff. "YMCA Waits Approval as State Historic Site." Jersey Journal 7 July 1999.
"Y to Observe Centennial at Fete," Hudson Dispatch 28 October 1954.
"Y.M.C.A. in Early Days." Joan D. Lovero Collection, New Jersey Room.  Jersey City Free Public Library.
Y.M.C.A. of Jersey City, N.J.  Fifth Annual Report of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Jersey City, NJ: May 1, 1909, to April 19, 1910. 

Y.W.C.A.
270 Fairmount Avenue

The Young Women's Christian Association (Y.W.C.A.) of Jersey City was founded on March 13, 1905. It was in response to an appeal by young working women at Colgate & Company to the National Association to provide housing in a wholesome environment as it had in other industrialized cities. From its first meeting at the Jersey City Free Public Library, the Jersey City membership grew from 168 charter members to 550 members in one year.

The Jersey City "Y" purchased property at 10 Wayne Street and then removed to 91 Mercer Street in 1907. Its services combined Christian fellowship with residence room as well as an educational program offering classes from bible study to physical education. During World War I, the National War Council financially assisted the "Y" with the operation of its Hudson City Branch at 43 Belmont Avenue and Colored [sic] Branch at 31 Ege Avenue. After the war, the "Y" was on its own to raise money for a larger facility required for its growing number of members. Two campaigns in the 1920s raised $1,200,000 to construct a new building at 270 Fairmount Avenue. One of its major benefactors was Col. Austin Colgate, a grandson of Colgate's founder William Colgate. Dedicated on January 22, 1928, the new women's "Y" was five-stories high on Fairmount Avenue and eleven-stories high on Storms Avenue.

The mission of the Y.W.C.A. took a special interest in the needs of women facing poverty, homelessness and unemployment.  Vocational training was emphasized during the lean years of the Depression so that women could contribute to the income of their families. During World War II, the women's "Y" expanded its residence program to house women workers entering the city to work in national defense plants. It also hosted a USO canteen program for the servicemen. The postwar decades expanded the work of the "Y" to help single mothers and children. It developed a program for homeless families, offering meals, counseling, and a 24-hour hot line as well as a shelter for battered women at an undisclosed location.

The additional residences for women were the brick row houses at 136-138 Grant Avenue and apartments buildings at 240 Bergen Avenue and 169 Martin Luther King Drive.
In the 1980s the Y.W.C.A. found it could not financially continue its mission to provide housing for single working women; it then decided to revamp its properties into affordable rental housing for senior citizens and the handicapped as a community resource. Funding for the renovation of the properties came from grants, such as the Jersey City Redevelopment Agency's Rental Rehabilitation Program, and from loans, such as the Hudson County Affordable Housing Trust Fund. In 1987 the Fairmount Housing Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Women Rising, Inc., was formed to oversee the properties.  

In 1989, the Y.W.C.A. in Jersey City merged its programs with the "Y" in Bayonne at 44 West 32nd Street to become the Y.W.C.A. of Hudson County, but it was short-lived.  Today, the former single women's residence in Bayonne is an apartment residence for the elderly and the handicapped. The Y.W.C.A. of Jersey City on Fairmount Avenue became Women Rising, Inc.: Programsfor Women and Families, a nonprofit community-based agency. With the Fairmount Housing Corporation, its goal is to provide permanent affordable housing and programs for women. It also has a domestic violence shelter in the city, assisting women in Hudson County.

References:

The 25th Anniversary: 25 Years of Growth;The Y.W.C.A. of Jersey City. Jersey City, NJ: Collins Doan Company, 1930.
Courtney, Marian. "Profile: Jersey City's Fairmount Housing Corporation."  Housing New Jersey April 1993.
Women Rising, Inc. http://www.womenrising.org

By: Carmela Karnoutsos
Project Administrator: Patrick Shalhoub